High Blood Pressure or Hypertension

hypertension, high blood pressure, heart disease-867855.jpg

Blood pressure measurements take into account the amount of blood flowing through the blood vessels and the resistance the blood experiences when the heart is beating. Hypertension occurs when the force of blood through the blood vessels is always too high. This article covers the basics of high blood pressure, including its symptoms, causes, and treatments.

What is high blood pressure?

high blood pressure

Small blood vessels, also called arteries, provide increased resistance to blood flow. The narrower the blood vessels, the greater the resistance and the higher the blood pressure. In the long run, increased pressure can lead to health problems such as heart disease.

High blood pressure is common. In fact, nearly half of American adults have been diagnosed with the condition since the guidelines changed in 2017.

Hypertension usually develops over several years. You usually don’t notice any symptoms. But even without symptoms, hypertension can damage blood vessels and organs, especially the brain, heart, eyes, and kidneys.

Early detection is key. Regular blood pressure measurements can help you and your doctor identify changes. If your blood pressure is high, your doctor may want to monitor you for several weeks to see if it remains high or returns to normal levels. Both include a healthy lifestyle. If left untreated, it can lead to health problems such as heart attack and stroke.

How to Understand Your high blood pressure Readings?

Blood pressure according to age

Five categories define blood pressure readings for adults:

The two numbers are the same as your blood pressure readings. Systolic blood pressure (the top number) is the pressure in your arteries as your heart beats and pumps blood. Diastolic blood pressure (bottom number) is the pressure reading in the arteries between heart beats.

Healthy: Healthy blood pressure readings are less than 120/80 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).
Increase: The systolic value is between 120- and 129-mm Hg and the diastolic value is less than 80 mm Hg. Elevated blood pressure is not usually treated with medication. Alternatively, your doctor may suggest lifestyle changes to lower your numbers. Two stages of hypertension: systolic value ≥140 mmHg or diastolic value ≥90 mmHg.
Hypertensive Crisis: Systolic value above 180 mm Hg or diastolic value above 120 mm Hg. Blood pressure in this range requires urgent medical attention. If such high blood pressure causes symptoms such as chest pain, headache, shortness of breath, or blurred vision, emergency room treatment is necessary.
Blood pressure is measured with a pressure cuff. Using the correct cuff is critical for accurate measurements. Improper cuffs can give inaccurate measurements. Blood pressure readings differ between children and adolescents. Ask your doctor about your child’s health range when asked to monitor blood pressure.

What are the symptoms of high blood pressure?

symptoms of blood pressure

Hypertension is generally an asymptomatic condition. Many people are asymptomatic. It may take years or decades for the disease to reach a level serious enough to cause symptoms. Still, these symptoms can be traced back to other problems.

Reliable sources say symptoms of severe high blood pressure include:

  • flushed skin
  • bloody eyes (subconjunctival hemorrhage)
  • dizziness
  • contrary to popular belief in addition, severe high blood pressure doesn’t usually cause nosebleeds or headaches—unless someone is in high blood pressure crisis.

The best way to tell if you have high blood pressure is to check your blood pressure regularly. Most clinics measure blood pressure at each visit.

If you only have an annual physical, talk to your doctor about your risk of high blood pressure and other measurements you may need to monitor your blood pressure.

For example, if you have a family history of heart disease or have risk factors for developing heart disease, your doctor may recommend that you have your blood pressure checked twice a year. This allows you to be on the lookout for potential problems before they occur.

What are the causes high blood pressure?

causes of hypertensions

There are two types of hypertensions. Each type has different causes.

Essential (Primary) Hypertension
Essential hypertension is also called primary hypertension. This type of hypertension develops over time. Most people have this type of hypertension.

The development of essential hypertension usually involves a combination of factors:

Some people are genetically predisposed to hypertension. This may be due to genetic mutations or genetic abnormalities inherited from both parents.
Age: Women over the age of 65 are at increased risk of hypertension.
Non-Hispanic blacks have a higher incidence of hypertension.
Living with Obesity:
Living with obesity can lead to several heart problems, including hypertension.
High Alcohol Consumption:
Women who habitually drink one or more drinks per day and men who drink two or more drinks per day may be at increased risk of hypertension.
Living a very sedentary lifestyle:
Poor fitness is associated with hypertensions.
Living with Diabetes and/or Metabolic Syndrome:
Individuals diagnosed with diabetes or metabolic syndrome are at increased risk of developing hypertension.
High Sodium Intake:
There is a small association between high daily sodium intake (1.5 g or more per day) and hypertension.
Secondary Hypertension
Secondary hypertension often develops rapidly and can be more severe than primary hypertension.

Kidney Disease

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  • Congenital Heart Disease
  • Thyroid Problems
  • Medication Side Effects
  • Illicit Drug Use
  • Chronic Alcohol Use
  • Adrenal Problems
  • Certain Endocrine Tumors

Diagnosing of hypertension

Diagnosing hypertension is as easy as measuring your blood pressure. Most clinics check your blood pressure as part of your regular check-ups. If blood pressure readings are not available at your next appointment, please request them.

If your blood pressure is high, your doctor may ask you to take more measurements over the next few days or weeks. A single measurement is rarely diagnostic of hypertension.

Your doctor needs to see evidence of ongoing problems. This is because her environment can contribute to elevated blood pressure, similar to the stress she feels during a doctor’s appointment, and her blood pressure readings change throughout her day.

If your blood pressure remains high, your doctor may do more tests to rule out an underlying disorder. These tests include:

  • Cholesterol screening and other blood tests
  • Electrocardiogram (EKG, sometimes called EKG) to check the electrical activity of the heart
  • Ultrasound of the heart or kidneys
  • Monitor Your Blood Pressure with a Home Sphygmomanometer at Home 24/7
  • These tests help your doctor identify secondary problems that may be causing hypertension. It can also be used to study the effects of hypertension on organs.

During this time, your doctor may start treating your high blood pressure. Early treatment can reduce the risk of permanent damage.

Treatment options for hypertension

Many factors help your doctor decide which treatment is best for you. These factors include the type of high blood pressure you have and the identified causes.

Treatment Options for Primary Hypertension

Lifestyle You can lower your high blood pressure by changing your If lifestyle changes are not enough or you are unable to work, your doctor may prescribe medication.

Treatment Options for Secondary Hypertension

When a doctor discovers an underlying problem causing hypertension, treatment focuses on other conditions. For example, if a drug you start taking causes hypertension, doctors try other drugs that do not have this side effect.

Hypertension may persist even after treating the underlying cause. In this case, your doctor can work with you to make lifestyle changes and prescribe medications to lower your blood pressure. What worked in the beginning can become useless over time. Your doctor will continue to work with you to improve your treatment.


Many people go through periods of trial and error with blood pressure medications. Your doctor may need to try different medicines until he finds the one or combination that works for you.

Beta Blockers:
Beta blockers make the heart beat slower and weaker. This reduces the amount of blood pumped out of the arteries with each beat, lowering blood pressure. It also blocks certain hormones in the body that can raise blood pressure.
High levels of sodium and excess water in the body can raise blood pressure. Diuretics, also called water pills, help the kidneys remove excess sodium from the body. When sodium is excreted, excess water in the bloodstream moves into the urine, which helps lower blood pressure.
ACE inhibitors:
Angiotensin is a chemical that causes blood vessels and artery walls to constrict and narrow. ACE inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme) prevent the body from making as much of this chemical as possible. This relaxes blood vessels and lowers blood pressure.
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs): While
ACE inhibitors are intended to stop the formation of angiotensin, ARBs block the binding of angiotensin to its receptors. Without chemicals, blood vessels do not narrow. This helps relax blood vessels and lower blood pressure.
Calcium Channel Blockers:
These drugs block some of the calcium from entering the heart muscle. This slows your heart rate and lowers your blood pressure. These drugs also act on blood vessels, relaxing them and further lowering blood pressure.
Alpha-2 Agonists:
This type of drug alters nerve impulses that cause blood vessels to narrow. This relaxes blood vessels and lowers blood pressure.

Home remedies for hypertension

A healthy lifestyle can help control the factors that cause hypertension. Here are some of the most common ones:

Developing a Heart-Healthy Diet
A heart-healthy diet is essential to lowering hypertension. It is also important for managing hypertension and reducing the risk of complications. These complications include heart disease, stroke, and heart attack.

A heart-healthy diet focuses on:

  • fruits
  • vegetables
  • whole grains
  • lean proteins such as fish
  • increased physical activity
  • in addition to weight loss (recommended by doctors) ), exercise also helps naturally lower blood pressure and strengthens the cardiovascular system.

Aim for 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity each week. About 30 minutes, 5 times a week.

Reaching Optimal Weight
If you are living with obesity, maintaining a healthy weight through a heart-healthy diet and increased physical activity can help lower blood pressure.

Stress Management
Exercise is a great way to manage stress. Other activities are also helpful.


  • Deep Breathing
  • Massage
  • Muscle Relaxation
  • Yoga or Tai Chi
  • Getting enough sleep can also help reduce stress.

Quitting Smoking and Limiting Alcohol Consumption
If you are a smoker and have been diagnosed with hypertension, your doctor will probably advise you to stop smoking. The chemicals in cigarette smoke can damage body tissues and harden the walls of blood vessels.

If you regularly drink too much alcohol or become an alcoholic, seek help to reduce or stop drinking altogether. Excess alcohol can raise blood pressure.

Lifestyle Tips to Reduce Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

If you have risk factors for hypertension, you can take steps to reduce your risk of this condition and its complications.

Add Fruits and Vegetables to Your Diet
Slowly start eating more heart-healthy plants. The goal is to eat at least 7 servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Then try adding 1 serving per day to him for 2 weeks. Two weeks after that, try adding another serving. The goal is to eat 10 servings of fruits and vegetables a day.

Limit Refined Sugars
Try to limit the amount of sugar-sweetened foods you eat per day, such as flavored yogurts, cereals, and sodas. Unnecessary sugar is hidden in packaged foods, so be sure to read the label.

Reduce Your Sodium Intake
People with high blood pressure or at high risk of heart disease may be advised by their doctor to keep their sodium intake between 1,500 and 2,300 milligrams per day.

The best way to cut down on salt is to cook fresh foods more often and limit the amount of fast and convenience foods.

If your doctor recommends weight loss, talk to your doctor about the best weight loss goals. A trusted source at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends a weight loss goal of 1-2 pounds per week. This can be achieved through a more nutritious diet and more physical activity.

Check Your Blood Pressure Regularly
The best way to prevent complications and avoid problems is to detect high blood pressure early.

Record your blood pressure readings and bring them with you to your routine appointments. This allows doctors to spot potential problems before symptoms develop.

What are the effects of high blood pressure on the body?

Because hypertension is often an asymptomatic condition, it can wreak havoc on the body for years before symptoms become apparent. Left untreated, high blood pressure can lead to serious and even fatal complications.

Complications of hypertension include:

Damaged arteries
Healthy arteries are flexible and tough. Blood flows freely and unimpeded through healthy arteries and blood vessels.

High blood pressure makes the arteries stiff, narrow, and less elastic. This damage makes it easier for dietary fats to accumulate in arteries, restricting blood flow. This damage can lead to increased blood pressure, blockages, and ultimately heart attacks and strokes. Heart
High blood pressure causes the heart to overwork. Increased pressure in the blood vessels causes the heart muscle to beat more frequently and with greater force than a healthy heart.

May cause heart enlargement.

  • heart failure
  • arrhythmia
  • sudden cardiac death
  • heart attack
  • brain injury
  • The brain needs a healthy supply of oxygenated blood to function properly. Untreated high blood pressure can reduce blood supply to the brain.

A temporary blockage of blood flow to the brain is called a transient ischemic attack (TIA).
Severe blockage of blood flow leads to the death of brain cells. This is called a stroke.
Uncontrolled hypertension can also affect memory and the ability to learn, remember, speak, and think. Treating high blood pressure does not eliminate or reverse the effects of uncontrolled high blood pressure. But it lowers the risk of future problems.


High blood pressure, also known as high blood pressure, is a very common health problem in the United States.

If you have recently been diagnosed with hypertension, your treatment plan will depend on factors. These include the severity of your hypertension and what medication your doctor thinks are best for you. or an effective way of reversing the diagnosis. These changes include adding nutritious fruits and vegetables to the diet, increasing physical activity, limiting sodium intake, and limiting alcohol consumption. It is important to check your blood pressure at your annual physical check-up, as it is often the case. Severe hypertension can cause serious health problems. Therefore, the sooner the diagnosis is made, the sooner it can be treated and even reversed in some cases.

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