What is mental health?

Mental health refers to cognitive, behavioral, and emotional well-being. It is all about how people think, feel, and behave. People sometimes use the term “mental health” to mean the absence of a mental disorder.

Daily life, relationships, and physical health can all be impacted by mental health.

This connection, however, also functions the other way around. Mental illness can be influenced by personal circumstances, social ties, and physical conditions. Maintaining one’s mental health might help them continue to enjoy life. This entails striking a balance between daily obligations, living activities, and endeavors to develop psychological resilience. An individual’s routine can be disturbed, and their mental health can be affected by stress, depression, and anxiety. Even though medical professionals frequently refer to mental health, many psychological problems have physical causes, according to physicians. What is meant by the terms “mental health” and “mental illness” is explained in this article. We also go through the most prevalent varieties of mental illnesses, their early warning signs, and treatment options.

mental health

Risk factors for mental health conditions

risk factor for mental health

Regardless of age, sex, financial level, or race, everyone is at some risk of getting a mental health issue. Mental diseases are one of the main causes of disability in the US and much of the developed world.

A person’s mental health may be influenced by their social and financial situation, difficult childhood memories, biological traits, and underlying physical disorders.

Many persons who suffer from mental health disorders simultaneously experience many conditions.

There are several modifiable risk factors for mental health issues.
  • socioeconomic factors, such as whether or not there is employment in the neighbourhood and a person’s level of social interaction
  • housing affordability education
Among the non-modifiable factors are:
  • gender
  • sage
  • ethnicity
  • nationality
    The researchers discovered that being female roughly quadrupled the likelihood of having poor mental health. Additionally, those with “poor economic status” had the best mental health.

Childhood Adversity

Numerous studies
A growing child’s mental and physical health are greatly impacted by traumatic childhood events such child abuse, parental illness, loss, and separation, according to reliable sources.

Additionally, there are links between unfavourable events and other psychotic diseases, including childhood maltreatment. Additionally, these events increase a person’s risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Biological Factors

According to the NIMH, a person’s genetic family history may
A person is more likely to develop mental health issues as a result of particular genes and gene variants that increase risk.

However, a variety of additional factors also play a role in the emergence of these illnesses.

The presence of a gene linked to a mental health illness does not ensure that the disorder will manifest. Similar to those who lack associated genes or a family history of mental

Chronic physical health issues like cancer, diabetes, and chronic pain can lead to mental health diseases like depression and anxiety, as well as chronic stress.

Types of mental health disorders

type of metal disorder's

Due to traits they share, particular mental diseases are categorised. Here are a few examples of mental illnesses:

  • worry disorders
  • mood problems
  • psychotic disorders

Anxiety disorders

The most prevalent mental illness, according to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America, is anxiety disorders.

People who have these illnesses experience intense fear or anxiety in relation to particular things or circumstances. Most individuals with anxiety disorders make an effort to limit their exposure to anything that makes them anxious.

Here are a few illustrations of anxiety disorders.
  • Disorder of generalized anxiety
  • An excessive amount of concern or fear that interferes with daily life is a symptom of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).
Physical signs that people may experience include:
  • Unrest, tiredness, and lack of focus
  • sleep was disturbed by strained muscles.
  • In patients with GAD, an anxiety attack does not always require a specific cause.

When confronted with routine scenarios like housework or appointments that don’t directly endanger them, they may get overly anxious. Anxiety can occasionally strike a person with GAD with no apparent trigger.

Learn more about GAD.
  • panic attack
  • Regular panic attacks characterized by extreme anxiety, or a sense of impending doom affect people with panic disorders.

Here is more information on panic attacks.

There are various forms of phobia:

Simple phobias: These can involve an excessive fear of particular things, situations, or animals. A common example is a fear of spiders.
Social phobia, also referred to as social anxiety, is the fear of being judged by others. People who have social anxiety frequently limit their exposure to social settings.
Agoraphobia is the name for a dread of circumstances where escaping would be challenging, like being in an elevator or a moving train. This phobia is sometimes mistaken for the dread of being outside.
Because phobias are extremely personal, not all types are known to doctors. There may be thousands of different phobias, and what one person may find unusual may be a serious issue that takes over their daily life for another.


Obsessions and compulsions are characteristics of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In other words, individuals have persistent, anxious thoughts and a strong want to do things repeatedly, like wash their hands.


After experiencing or witnessing a highly stressful or traumatic event, PTSD may develop. The person believes that their life or the lives of others are in risk during this kind of incident. They might experience fear or the notion that they are powerless over the situation.

PTSD may then result from these trauma and fear-related feelings.

Mood issues

Affective disorders and depressive disorders are other terms used to describe mood problems.

These illnesses cause severe mood swings in sufferers, which are typically either mania—a period of extreme vigour and joy—or sadness. Mood disorders include, for example:

Major depression: A person with major depression has a persistently down mood and loses interest in formerly enjoyable activities and events (anhedonia). They may experience intense sadness over extended periods of time.
Bipolar disorder: People who have this condition go through unusual variations in their mood, energy level, level of activity, and ability to go about their daily lives. Manic phases are times of extreme mood, while depression phases are times of extreme low mood. Find out more about the various bipolar disorders here.
SAD: Seasonal Affective Disorder This sort of serious depression is brought on by less daylight during the fall, winter, and early spring monthsReliable Source. It is especially prevalent in nations that are far from the equator.

schizophrenia disordered

The term “schizophrenia” is frequently used to describe a range of illnesses marked by severe psychotic symptoms. These are extremely difficult circumstances. The NIMH reports that symptoms of schizophrenia often appear between the ages of 16 and 30Reliable Source. The person may also have trouble processing information and have scattered ideas. Both negative and positive signs of schizophrenia exist. Delusions, thought disorders, and hallucinations are instances of positive symptoms, whereas withdrawal, a lack of desire, and an unsuitable or flat mood are examples of negative symptoms.

Early signs of mental health

No medical examination or scan can properly tell if someone has a mental disease. However, the following warning indicators of a mental health issue should be watched out for:

  • avoiding activities, they would often like and retreating from friends, family, and coworkers
  • eating excessively or insufficiently sleeping too much or too little feeling hopeless
  • having constant low energy using sedatives, such as nicotine and alcohol, and more often showing negative emotions
  • not being able to perform regular activities like leaving for work or cooking a meal
  • having recurring, persistent thoughts or recollections that involve wanting to kill oneself or others physically or hearing voices
  • exhibiting hallucinations

Diagnosis of mental health

Multiple steps must be taken in order to diagnose a mental health issue. In order to rule out any underlying physical diseases or problems that might be causing the symptoms, a doctor may start by reviewing a patient’s medical history and doing a complete physical examination.

Mental diseases cannot be identified by medical tests. To screen for other potential underlying reasons, doctors may however conduct a variety of laboratory procedures, including imaging scans and bloodwork.

They’ll conduct a psychological assessment as well. Inquiries regarding a person’s symptoms, experiences, and how these have affected their lives are part of this process. In order to get insight into a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavioural patterns, a doctor may occasionally ask a patient to complete mental health questionnaires.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the diagnostic tool of choice for most mental health professionals. This guidebook includes explanations and specific requirements for diagnosis eligibility.


treatment of mental disease

The treatment of mental health issues can be done in many different ways.

Combining certain tactics or treatments can increase their efficacy. A person with a persistent mental illness may make diverse decisions throughout their life.

The patient has to engage closely with a physician who can assist them in determining their needs and offering appropriate therapy.

Talking therapies, such as psychotherapy

This style of treatment approaches the treatment of mental illness psychologically. Examples include dialectical behavior therapy, exposure treatment, and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).

This therapy is provided by some primary care physicians, psychiatrists, psychologists, and psychotherapists.

It can assist patients in identifying the underlying causes of their mental illness and in beginning to develop healthier cognitive patterns that support daily life and lessen the likelihood of isolation and self-harm.


Some people use antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiolytics, which are all prescribed medications.

While working on their mental health, some medications can aid with symptoms and let a person continue social engagement and a routine, even though they cannot treat mental diseases.

Some of these drugs increase the body’s absorption of feel-good brain chemicals like serotonin.

Self help

To promote wellness, a person dealing with mental health issues may need to alter their lifestyle.

Reducing alcohol consumption, getting more rest, and eating a healthy, balanced diet are a few examples of such adjustments. It could be necessary for someone to take time off from work or to work out personal problems that are affecting their mental health.

Deep breathing, meditation, and mindfulness are examples of relaxation practises that may be helpful for those with disorders like anxiety or depressive disorder.

A support system, whether it be through self-help organisations or close friends and family, can be crucial to recovering from mental illness.

Myths vs. facts about mental health

There are a lot of myths and facts regarding mental health that are widely held. Here are some illustrations.

Myth: People with mental illnesses are less intelligent.

Fact: Everyone is susceptible to mental diseases, regardless of intelligence, wealth, or social standing.

Myth: Adolescents don’t experience mental health problems. They just experience mood swings because of their changing hormone levels.

Fact: While it is true that teenagers frequently experience mood fluctuations, this does not preclude them from experiencing mental health problems. By the age of 14, half of all mental health issues start.

Myth: Those who suffer from mental diseases are violent, unpredictable, and dangerous.

Fact: Many people immediately categories those who commit acts of mass murder and crime as “mentally ill.”

Myth: Moody people have bipolar disorder.

Fact: Bipolar cycles can span from a few weeks to many months, and they do not fluctuate as quickly as people’s moods do.

Myth: Adolescents with mental health issues are the result of poor parenting.

True Source Fact: People with mental health issues can function well in a supportive environment that values and encourages mental health

How to keep your mental health in check?

Self-care techniques can boost a person’s mental health by lowering their chance of getting sick, boosting their energy, and controlling their stress. To help someone start their self-care regimen, the NIMH provides numerous tips:

  • Exercise on a regular basis: Exercise for 45 minutes, three to five times per week, can greatly enhance mental health.
  • Eat a nutritious, balanced diet, and drink enough of water. These two habits can help you have a steady source of energy all day long.
  • Engage in soothing activities: Breathing exercises, meditation, wellness apps, and journaling can all help you feel better and reduce stress.
  • Practice appreciation: By deliberately noting the things they are glad for each day; people can cultivate mindfulness and gratitude.
  • Challenge unhelpful thoughts: By becoming aware of negative thoughts and confronting them, a person can practice positivity.
  • Seek out constructive social interactions: Making and keeping meaningful connections with people can make you feel less stressed and can also be a source of support and assistance when you need it.

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