Impact of deforestation on environment

Deforestation is caused by a variety of factors, such as farming, building projects, the need for raw materials (cattle ranching is responsible for 80% of deforestation), and logging for building and material needs. Deforestation seriously threatens the resilience of the earth and has many negative effects on natural ecosystems. A few effects of deforestation include climate change, desertification, soil erosion, fewer crops, floods, and increased greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. From this article, you will learn about the impact of deforestation on environment.

impact of deforestation on environment

What is Deforestation?

Deforestation, sometimes referred to as forest clearance, is the removal of a forest or tree stand from a piece of land before it is used for a non-forest purpose. It is the process of converting forest lands into agricultural land, ranches, or urban areas. Deforestation is more prevalent in tropical rainforests. Currently, forests encompass 31% of the planet’s geographical area. With half of the loss occurring in the previous century. There is currently a third less forest cover than there was before the development of agriculture. Between 15 million and 18 million hectares of forest are lost each year. This is about the same area as Bangladesh. An average of 2,400 trees are cut down every minute.

Impact of Deforestation on environment

Impact of deforestation on Water Cycle

impact of deforestation on water cycle
  • Given how crucial trees are to the water cycle, deforestation may have severe consequences.
  • Trees and plants employ the transpiration mechanism to regulate the quantity of moisture in the air (they absorb groundwater through their roots and release it into the atmosphere from their leaves and flowers).
  • Additionally, the earth is pierced by their roots, forming macropores.
  • These macropores increase the soil’s ability to store water by allowing water to permeate farther into the ground.
  • Dead plant matter (such as leaves and twigs) that falls to the ground’s surface endows the soil with a variety of benefits, one of which is increased water-holding capacity.
  • About 30% of the freshwater supply in the globe comes from tropical rainforests.
  • The loss of transpiring trees causes a decrease in humidity, which is why deforestation occurs.
  • Soil moisture levels and groundwater levels both fall on cleared land.
  • In locations with little tree cover, very dry weather is common. Deforestation has been linked to desertification and droughts.

Soil Erosion

soil erosion
  • Tree roots frequently cling to the bedrock under the soil, fortifying it.
  • Additionally, the surface of the soil is protected by the plant litter that trees create.
  • When trees are taken down due to deforestation, the soil is more susceptible to erosion.
  • Deforestation of sloping terrain usually occurs in conjunction with landslides, which may be explained by the loss of soil adhesion caused by the lack of trees.
  • Some natural calamities, like floods, increase the rate of erosion (note that the plant litter found on forest surfaces helps reduce the amount of soil washed away).
  • Because soil erosion directly contributes to eutrophication, deforestation might be considered as a source of other environmental problems.


impact of deforestation on environment
  • Numerous different species can be found in forests. In actuality, tropical rainforests are considered to have the most diverse ecosystems on Earth.
  • The biodiversity of this environment is seriously threatened by deforestation. Localized clearing of forests may lead to a decline in the population of some species.
  • On the other side, deforestation may lead to the global extinction of some useful species.
  • Every year, deforestation causes the extinction of over 50,000 species of animals, plants, and insects.
  • Studies show that by the end of the twenty-first century, almost 40% of Southeast Asia’s plant and animal species will be extinct.
  • It is hard to predict how widespread biodiversity loss would affect the environment, but it is very likely that it will have a negative effect on the food chain.
  • The extinction of one species may also have a significant impact on the extinction of another owing to the phenomenon of co-extinction.

Economic Impact

  • Deforestation facilitates the production of raw materials for several businesses.
  • Examples include the agricultural industry, the woodworking business, and the building industry.
  • On the other side, over exploitation of wood and timber may hurt the economy.
  • Although deforestation boosts the economy in the near term, it also lowers production over the long run.
  • For instance, if too much lumber is removed from a forest, the overall production may increase briefly. However, as the forest area shrinks, the harvest eventually falls.
  • The entire yield of the forest is significantly impacted by such actions.
  • Deforestation and other causes may lead the global GDP to decline by 7% by 2050, according to some projections.
  • Therefore, a long-term approach to managing forest resources is appropriate.

Impact on Human Health

impact of deforestation on human health
  • A number of contagious diseases can spread through deforestation, either directly or indirectly.
  • New species frequently flourish in deforested areas because deforestation frequently causes the extinction of native species.
  • Because of a change in the distribution of fruit bats owing to geography, the Nipah virus spread more readily in Malaysia (due to deforestation).
  • Deforestation caused fruit bats, known disease carriers, to lose their native habitat and start eating in orchards close to people areas.
  • Due to close contact, the Nipah virus spread from fruit bats to pigs and eventually to humans.
  • These swimming pools act as a haven for mosquitoes, which may spread illnesses like yellow fever and malaria.
  • According to some ideas, the spread of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has also been connected to deforestation
  • Forestation-related increased soil erosion might result in stagnant water pool development.

Other impact of Deforestation on environment

  • Deforestation makes it easier to provide raw materials for a variety of businesses. The agriculture industry, the timber business, and the building sector are among examples.
  • On the other hand, the economy may suffer if wood and timber are overused. Reduced long-term productivity goes hand in hand with the short-term economic advantages brought about by deforestation.
  • For instance, excessive timber harvesting from a forest area may raise total production momentarily, but the harvest will eventually fall due to the shrinking forest area. By using such methods, the overall forest production is significantly decreased.
  • According to some projections, deforestation and other causes may cause the world GDP to decrease by 7% by the year 2050.
  • Consequently, it is suitable for using forest resources in a sustainable manner.


Huge tracts of forest are chopped down, causing the exposed ground to wilt and die and the homes of innumerable creatures to be lost. This poses a serious threat to the indigenous inhabitants. Who live in the woods and depend on them to maintain their way of life. We in the more industrialized parts of the globe can never understand. How the loss of trees impacts their way of life, despite the fact that we also depend on what the rainforest provides. Indigenous peoples possess a far higher degree of immediateness. Governments of nations with rainforests on their borders routinely expel indigenous populations before clear-cutting takes place, One of the worst impact of deforestation on environment.

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