The term “biodiversity” refers to the diversity of life on Earth. The term “biodiversity” refers to the diversity of all living things on Earth. A healthy and excellent environment is characterized by healthy and good biodiversity. Consequently, biodiversity is crucial. A healthy ecosystem also has access to clean water, clean air, healthy land, a favorable climate, and nutrients on Earth. Therefore, the preservation of biodiversity is crucial for the welfare of all living things. The conservation and management of biodiversity is referred to as biodiversity conservation, with the goal of achieving sustainable resource development.
Definition of Conservation of Biodiversity
Biodiversity must be preserved, restored, and managed in order to provide benefits to both current and future generations. Or it could be described as “the sum of all genes, species, and ecosystems in a defined area.
How we do Conservation of Biodiversity
The protection, management, and maintenance of ecosystems and natural habitats in order to maintain their health and functionality is referred to as biodiversity conservation.
The following are the three primary goals of biodiversity conservation:
- To safeguard and maintain the diversity of species.
- To make sure that habitats and species are managed sustainably.
- Environmental protection and life support system repair.
Methods of conservation of biodiversity
The conservation of biodiversity uses two different sorts of techniques. They are conservation in situ and conservation ex situ.
Some methods for preserving biodiversity include the ones listed below:
- Ex situ conservation
- In situ conservation
In situ Conservation
The maintenance and defense of the species in their native environment is referred to as in situ conservation. In natural populations of plant or animal species, it refers to the preservation of genetic resources. Managing biodiversity in its natural habitat is referred to as in situ conservation.
The preservation of biodiversity on-site has various benefits.
- It protects both animals and their natural environments.
- Numerous populations are protected as a result.
- It is practical and affordable as a means of conservation.
- It is not necessary for animals to adapt to a new habitat.
- Biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biodiversity hotspots, gene reserves, and holy groves are a few examples of in-situ conservation techniques.
- As long as the natural ecosystem is preserved, it is described as the preservation of species in their native environment.
- The benefits of in-situ conservation are manifold. Following are some significant benefits of in-situ conservation:
- It is a practical and affordable method of preserving biodiversity.
- It is possible to conserve several living things at once.
- They can readily adapt to different environmental situations and can evolve more effectively.
- In-situ conservation takes happen in areas like biosphere reserves, national parks, and animal sanctuaries.
These are locations chosen by national governments; they are sizable ecosystems, sometimes up to 5000 square kilometers, where the traditional way of life and natural environment of the ecosystem’s inhabitants are safeguarded. Tourists and scholars are the main audiences for them.
Examples: Sundarbans, Nanda Devi, Nokrek, and Manas in India
These are restricted areas that the government keeps in order to preserve both the environment and the animals. National parks are only intended for the conservation of the local species and are devoid of any human activity. They generally live in a 100–500 square kilometer region. India now has a total of 104 national parks. Even a biosphere reserve may contain national parks. Government protection and upkeep are provided for these modest reserves. Its borders are highly protected, and farming, grazing, forestry, and other human activities are prohibited.
Examples include Kaziranga National Park, Gir National Park, and Kanha National Park.
The conservation of wild animals is the only goal of wildlife sanctuaries. The minimal human activities that are allowed here, such as farming, gathering wood, and harvesting other forest products, must not interfere with the protection of the animals. These locations also allow visitors. India has 551 wildlife sanctuaries in all. These areas are home to only wild animals. Some human activities, including timber harvesting, farming, wood collection, and other forestry products, are allowed as long as they don’t interfere with conservation efforts. Leisure travel is also permitted.
A protected area is considered to be a biodiversity hotspot if at least 1500 species of vascular plants are present there, and if the ecosystem has lost 70% of its cover. These are protected regions where nature, local way of life, and cultivated plants and animals are preserved for a variety of reasons. Activities like tourism and research are permitted.
The Himalayas, the Western Ghats, the Northeast, and the Nicobar Islands are a few examples.
A plant-only conservation area is called a gene sanctuary. In the Garo Hills of Meghalaya, India’s sole gene sanctuary has been established for the preservation of wild citrus species. More of these sanctuaries are being planned to open.
Sacred Groves are protected animal habitats by communities out of respect for their own religions. Generally speaking, it is a region of the forest where the animals is completely protected.
Ex Situ Conservation
Ex Situ conservation is the preservation of life outside of its natural habitat or surroundings. It is a method in which the whole population of an endangered, vulnerable species—or a fraction of it—is evacuated from its natural habitat, and the species’ reproduction and maintenance are carried out in artificial environments. These man-made ecosystems may be found at zoos, nurseries, botanical gardens, and other similar places. There are fewer concerns with survival, such as a shortage of food, water, or space, because these conservation zones have altered living circumstances. Ex-situ biodiversity conservation refers to the practice of breeding and preserving threatened species in places that resemble natural environments, such as zoos, nurseries, botanical gardens, gene banks, etc. For food, water, and accessible space, there isn’t much competition among the species.
Advantages of Ex Situ Conservation Include
- Climate, food availability, and veterinary care are examples of vital life-sustaining circumstances that may be changed and are within human control.
- Artificial breeding techniques can be used to successfully breed the species and produce many more offspring.
- Poaching of the species may be prevented, and population control can be effectively carried out.
- The population of the species may be increased through gene methods, and they can then be returned into the wild.
Biodiversity Conservation Strategies
- Conservation of ecosystems: The long-term survival of ecosystems is the objective of ecosystem conservation. It is done to make sure that nothing bad happens to the natural system.
- The region’s landscapes, which have deteriorated over time or through natural evolution, can be restored. Ecological processes in the ecosystems ought to be able to continue while threats can be eliminated.
- The goal of conservation is to increase the number of species that have been declining in a particular ecosystem, in accordance with this method.
- Food, livestock, the microbial population, and agricultural stock, including plants and animals, are all protected and preserved by this method.
efficient utilization of natural resources.
- To do some efforts to stop deforestation at all costs and strict regulations against it.
- Poaching and killing wild animals are wrong and educating the general public about the significance of biodiversity conservation.
- Animals are allowed to reproduce and are given more time.
- Reintroduction of species previously kept in captivity into the wild.
- Genetic approaches are utilized to safeguard endangered animals.
Need for Biodiversity Conservation
A healthy ecology is ensured by several conservation techniques. An ecosystem that is healthy has a clean, healthy environment, efficiently functioning food chains, access to resources, etc.
The environment is a crucial factor in how dependent humans are on it for their fundamental needs and welfare. For our survival, we rely on many different plant and animal species. Therefore, it is crucial to protect these species and their habitats, which are under threat from several human activities.
Humankind is put in danger when biodiversity is threatened. It may be the root cause of a number of serious issues, including pollution, habitat loss, resource depletion, climate change, species extinction, disease breakout, and more.
The preservation and protection of biodiversity is crucial for both practical and philosophical reasons.
Strategies for Biodiversity Conservation
The following are some crucial tactics for protecting biodiversity:
- Preserving all food types, woody plants, livestock, microbes, and farm animals is crucial.
- The identification and preservation of all economically important organisms is necessary.
- The preservation of unique ecosystems is necessary.
- Utilizing resources wisely is crucial.
- It is best to refrain from hunting and poaching wild animals.
- Reserves and protected areas should only be carefully developed.
- For the benefit of the environment, pollution levels have to be decreased.
- It should be against the law to clearcut woods.
- Environmental laws must be followed to the letter.
- Beneficial and threatened plant and animal species must be preserved.
Reason for Conservation of Biodiversity
Comparatively speaking, a region with more species is more stable than one with fewer species. For a variety of requirements, humans are directly dependent on several plant species. Similar to how different animals and bacteria serve diverse purposes for us.
Biodiversity is disappearing for a number of causes, including habitat loss, overuse of resources, climate changes, pollution, invasive foreign species, illnesses, hunting, etc. The preservation of biodiversity is crucial because it offers several moral and ethical advantages as well as aesthetic value.