What is pollution and its types?

The term “pollution” describes the act of introducing contaminating elements into the environment, which has a negative effect on it. It is caused by humans, and as more people live on the planet and human civilization advances. Depending on the area of the environment that is being polluted or the sort of pollutants or contaminants generating the pollution, there are many forms of pollution. The three main categories of pollution are air, water, and soil. We also have noise, light, radioactive, thermal, and plastic pollution due to the numerous ways our species has managed to damage the environment.


Types of pollution

There might be a variety of sources for the many forms of pollution, which include:

  • Air Pollution
  • Water Pollution
  • Soil Pollution
  • Noise Pollution

Additionally, there are various forms of pollution, such as radioactive, thermal, and light pollution. The most lethal pollution is radioactive since it results from the discharge of radioactive materials during nuclear explosions, nuclear weapon development, nuclear weapon testing, etc.
It occurs when toxins are introduced into the environment and cause a negative change. Numerous chemical compounds as well as energetic substances like sound, light, or heat can contribute to pollution. Pollutants, such as smoke, foreign objects like dust, excessive heat or loudness, and smoke, harm not only the environment but also human health.

Air Pollution

Air pollution

It is the term used to describe the environmental emission of hazardous pollutants such as poisonous gases, particles, biological molecules, chemicals, etc. Carbon monoxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides are examples of gaseous pollutants that cause harm to the atmosphere and are created by industry and automobiles. Health may suffer as a result of the adverse impacts of air pollutant. Some of the common causes of air pollution are briefly outlined here.

  1. Burning fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide and creates pollution. Due to the emissions of particles and gases like methane and nitrogen oxides, among others, mining activities including underground and surface mining produce respirable dust
  2. Factories, cars, and commercial air conditioners that discharge harmful chemicals into the atmosphere and cause smog to damage the ozone layer

Negative Consequnces

  • It may have long-term negative health impacts. Itis a key contributor to serious illnesses including heart disease, lung issues, and other respiratory conditions. Organs such as the kidneys, liver, brain, and others can become permanently damaged by air pollution. In addition to posing a threat to human health.
  • Global warming is the increase in the planet’s average temperature that results from the atmospheric buildup of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and other air pollution, which heat the planet by absorbing solar energy.
  • Acid Rain is defined as rain or precipitation that is abnormally acidic due to elevated hydrogen ion concentrations. Acids are created in the atmosphere when Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides interact with water molecules. Plants, animals, and infrastructure are all harmed by it
  • Ozone depletion occurs when airborne disruptive chemicals like CFCs and halons trigger chemical processes that break down ozone molecules. When it comes to absorbing UV radiation, ozone is crucial. Risks to Animals:
  • When the air is polluted, it is apparent that this will harm all types of life, including wildlife, who must breathe these chemicals in and put their lives in danger.

Water Pollution

Water Pollution

One of the environmental contamination categories with widespread negative impacts is water pollution. It results from the contamination of lakes, oceans, and rivers by harmful materials. The majority of the time, human activity—such as oil spills, the discharge of industrial waste into water, and sewage treatment—is what introduces the particles and undesirable chemicals. Natural phenomena including algae blooms, volcanoes, floods, animal faeces, and storms are possible additional causes.

Negative Consequences

  • Ecological imbalance
  • Endangered marine life
  • Waterborne illnesses
  • Higher amounts of mercury in water sources
  • When a body of water is too supplemented with nutrients and minerals, which results in an excessive growth of algae, the process is known as hypertrophication.

Soil Pollution 

Soil Pollution

The terms “land pollution” be used interchangeably. Chemicals or other alterations in the natural soil environment are what cause land degradation. The main causes of soil contamination are certain industrial practices, agricultural chemicals, and poor waste disposal. Deforestation, waste buildup, low soil fertility, reforestation, climate changes, etc. are other causes of land pollution.

Negative Consequences

  • Less nutrient-rich soil is unsuitable for agricultural activities.
  • Negative effects on the soil’s plant and animal life
  • Degraded vegetation stems from increased soil salinity.
  • Due to its high toxicity, silica dust can lead to lung and respiratory abnormalities.
  • The neuromuscular blockade may result in sadness, itchiness in the eyes, skin rash, and nausea.

Noise Pollution

Noise disturbance and hearing problem

It is an excessive quantity of noise in the environment that upsets the natural equilibrium, is one of many forms of pollution. However, natural phenomena like volcanoes can also contribute, such as man-made activities. Heavy machinery, factories, mills, transportation sounds from cars and aircraft, construction noises from boring and drilling equipment, social event noises from firecrackers and loudspeakers, and domestic noises from mixers, TVs, and washing machines are all examples of man-made sources of noise. Over 85 dB is thought to be harmful to health and to the long-term impacts. For instance, a plane taking off generates about 150 dB of noise. Typically, a normal discussion is only 60 db.

Negative Consequences

In addition to the physiological problems associated with excessive noise, unwanted sounds can also be harmful to psychological health. The following negative consequences are brought on by prolonged exposure to extreme noise:

  • Decreased workplace productivity
  • Tiredness and sleep deprivation
  • Loss of hearing
  • Tinnitus
  • Hypertension
  • Stress
  • A communication issues
  • Vascular conditions
  • Mental impairment

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