Computer programming languages are used to communicate instructions to a computer. They are based on certain syntactic and semantic rules that define the meaning of each of the programming language constructs.
Types of computer programming languages
- Interpreted Programming Languages
- Functional Programming Languages
- Compiled Programming Languages
- Procedural Programming Languages
- Scripting Programming Languages
- Markup Programming Languages
- Logic-Based Programming Languages
- Concurrent Programming Languages
- Object-Oriented Programming Languages
Interpreted Computer Programming Languages
An interpreted programming language is one for which most implementations run instructions directly without first compiling the program into machine-language instructions. The interpreter runs the program directly, turning each statement into a sequence of one or more subroutines that have already been turned into machine code.
APL is an array programming language. It was named after the book A Programming Language by Kenneth E. Iverson, which came out in 1962. It can work on multiple arrays of data at the same time. It is a functional programming language that can be used to interpret and talk to the user.
It is a free language for automating Microsoft Windows tasks. Its main goal is to help you make automation scripts that can be used to run certain tasks over and over on Windows.
It stands for Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. John George Kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz made it at Dartmouth in 1964. It was made so that people who don’t know much about computers could use them.
It is an object-oriented programming language that is standardised by ISO and is used to make software that can be added to and used over and over again. It is a platform for development in many fields, like finance, aerospace, and video games.
It is a structured imperative language whose implementation is based on stacks. let’s you run commands interactively and also lets you put together sequences of commands.
Alan Eliasen made it, and it’s named after the fictional character Professor John Frink. It is based on the Java Virtual Machine and focuses on science and engineering. Its most interesting feature is that it keeps track of the units of measure through all the calculations. This makes it possible for quantities to include their units of measurement.
Game Maker Language
It is an interpreted programming language for computers that is meant to be used with Game Maker, an app for making games. This language was made by a Dutch computer scientist named Mark Overmars.
ICI is an interpreted programming language for computers that was made by Tim Long in 1992. It lets you use dynamic typing, flexible data types, and other C-like language features.
This programming language, which only needs the basic ASCII character set, was made by Ken Iverson and Roger Hui. It is a programming language based on arrays that works well with math and statistics.
Lisp is the second-oldest widely used high-level programming language. List Processing Language is where the name Lisp comes from. A linked list is an important type of data structure that Lisp can use. Source code is treated as a data structure by Lisp programmes.
Lua was made in 1993 by the Computer Graphics Technology Group. It’s a programming language with both commands and procedures. It was made to be a scripting language. This is known for being easy to use but strong.
M M stands for the programming language MUMPS, which was made for the health care industry. The M language was made by Neil Pappalardo and his colleagues. Pappalardo was the founder of medical information technology.
It is a procedural programming language designed with structured programming and data organising in mind. The language was created by Niklaus Wirth, a Swiss computer scientist. It was named after the French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal.
Pcastl stands for by Parent and Child set Accessible Syntax Tree Language. It is a high-level language made by Philippe Choquette that belongs to the group of computer programming languages that can be read and understood by a computer. It is made for code that can change itself.
Perl is a high-level, interpreted programming language that can be used for programming that changes over time. Larry Wall, a linguist who worked at NASA as a systems administrator, came up with the idea. It lets programmers work with text and has a mix of features taken from different languages, like C, Lisp, and Awk.
This is called a page description language and is used in desktop publishing. It is a programming language that is based on a stack and is dynamically typed. This was made by John Warnock, an American computer scientist, and Charles Geschke, a well-known computer scientist. These developers went on to start Adobe Systems, a very well-known company.
The imperative, object-oriented, and functional programming paradigms are all supported by this high-level programming language. It resembles Perl in terms of features like the dynamic type of system and automated memory management. The Python Software Foundation oversees the development of Python, an open community-based language that was first introduced in 1991 by Dutch computer programmer Guido van Rossum.
The abbreviation REXX stands for Restructured Extended Executor, an interpreted language created by IBM. It was intended to be a simple, legible language when it was designed. The IBM version of REXX that supports object-oriented programming is called NetRexx. Based on REXX, Object REXX is an object-oriented scripting language.
The 1990s saw the beginning of this language’s development in Japan. It has a dynamic type system and automated memory management, just like Perl. It is a dynamic object-oriented language that supports a number of different programming paradigms.
S-Lang was first created as a stack-based language but has now changed to resemble C. Its creator is John E. Davis.
It is an object-oriented multitasking programming language, and its compiler turns Spin code into bytecodes. Multitasking is possible due to the concurrent execution of many Spins code threads. Chip Gracey, a developer for Parallax, created Spin.
Functional Programming Languages
Every computation is defined by functional programming languages as a mathematical evaluation. They emphasise the use of functions. Mathematical calculations are a common constraint on many functional programming languages.
Because it is entirely functional and not Turing-complete, all of its programmes are guaranteed to end. At the University of Calgary, a public university in Canada, charity was developed.
It is a completely functional programming language with features like cross-platform portability, automatic garbage collection, various data structures, and referential transparency, which ensures that a function with a particular input will always provide the same result.
It is a functional logic programming language that carries out constraint programming, functional programming, and logic programming. The constraint programming, the relationships between variables are expressed as constraints.
It is a sequential subset of a concurrent programming language that allows functional programming. In 1998, Ericsson published Erlang as an open source computer programming language. Erlang was created by Ericsson as a distributed, fault-tolerant, soft real-time language. One of the most often employed functional programming languages is this one.
It designed to communicate with the.NET Framework and supports both imperative and functional object-oriented programming. This language was invented by Don Syme at Microsoft Research, and the Microsoft Developer Division is currently enhancing it. The so-called F Sharp programming language will soon be added to Visual Studio and the.NET Framework.
It is a standardised, entirely functional language that was given its name in honor of the logician Haskell Curry. It supports recursive functions, algebraic data types, single assignment, definable operators, pattern matching, and definable operators.
A collection of functions serves as the foundation of this entirely functional language. This language was created by Manfred von Thun of La Trobe University in Australia.
It debuted in 2006 with a feature set that mixed aspects from functional and object-oriented programming. It moves quickly as a language. It’s interesting to note that Kite employs the pipe character for functional calls instead of the period or arrow characters found in other languages.
In the 1970s, Robin Milner and his colleagues at the University of Edinburgh developed ML. Due to its capability for imperative programming, it is an impure functional language. It is a functional, modular programming language that is well-liked by compiler developers. With support for distributed computing, multithreading, and constraint programming, Alice is a dialect of Standard ML. The Another ML dialect that provides autonomous memory management is called Caml. It is a statically typed language. The Caml implementation that is created as an open source project is called Ocaml. A variation of Ocaml based on join-calculus is called JoCaml.
It is a programming language with static typing that is made for the.NET framework, Emerle programmes are translated into bytecode, an intermediate language. It supports imperative, object-oriented, and functional programming.
Functional programming language called Optimized Applicative Language was created at the Technical University of Berlin.
The first computer language to be utilised in an expert system was a rule-based production system language.
Because it is a programming language for equations, it is known as Q. At the University of Mainz in Germany, Albert Graf created this interpreted functional language. You might think of it as a collection of equations that are used to evaluate expressions.
Compiled Programming Languages
A compiled language is a computer language that is often implemented by compilers rather than interpreters (translators that produce machine code from source code) (step-by-step executors of source code, where no pre-runtime translation takes place). (Wikipedia)
It is a Pascal-based, statically typed, structured, and imperative programming language. Ada was created by a CII Honeywell Bull team under the direction of Jean Ichbiah. For mission-critical systems, the Ada compilers have been approved. An internationally standardised programming language for computers is called Ada.
The so-called “Algorithmic Language” was really created in the middle of the 1950s and belongs to a family of imperative programming languages. The development of programming languages like BCPL, B, and C was made possible by it. Simula was created by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard of the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo.
C was created by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories to run on the Unix operating system. It is a procedural, imperative, general-purpose, cross-platform programming language. It is one of the most widely used computer programming languages of the present day and is utilised for the implementation of system software and application software. C has affected the creation of C++ and C#.
It is regarded as a middle-level programming language since it combines high-level and low-level language features. C++ was created by Bell Labs’ Bjarne Stroustrup as an expansion of the C language. C++, which was first known as “C with Classes,” first appeared in 1983. It is a multi-paradigm language that supports data abstraction, object-oriented programming, procedural programming, and generic programming.
The computer language C Sharp is multi-paradigm and supports imperative, generic, and object-oriented programming. The Microsoft.NET Framework contains it. With an object-oriented syntax comparable to C++, it also draws inspiration from Java and Delphi.
It is a computer language for the LEO computer and is referred to as the Clear Language for Expressing Orders.
Common Business-Oriented Language, the name of the language’s intended use in the business and financial sectors. Object-oriented programming is supported by the COBOL 2002 standard. One of the oldest programming languages currently in use is this one.
It is a programming language that uses the.NET and Mono frameworks and is object-oriented. It was created by Chuck Esterbrook. Python and C# are two languages that have an impact on its design. It is appropriate for unit testing and supports static and dynamic typing. It is currently an open source project.
It was initially created as a C++ improvement, but it also draws inspiration from Java, Eiffel, and C#. It was created by Walter Bright of Digital Mars as an object-oriented, imperative, multi-paradigm system programming language.
A high-level, strongly typed programming language created by Sun Microsystems, DASI is an acronym for Distributed Application Specification Language. It was designed specifically for use in the development of web applications.
A general-purpose procedural imperative programming language, DIBOL is an acronym for Digital Interactive Business Oriented Language. As it is best suited for the creation of Management Information Systems, it is somewhat comparable to COBOL.
It is a procedural, imperative, general-purpose programming language that performs mathematical operations and scientific computations well. It was created by IBM in the 1950s, and it quickly became common in programming. In the world of high-performance computing, it is particularly well-liked. It is a subset of Fortran95 and a structured, compiled programming language. The updated version of Fortran, Fortran 2003, allows object-oriented programming.
Concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and deliberately created to have as few implementation dependencies as possible, it is a general-purpose computer programming language. All platforms that support Java can run compiled Java code without the requirement for recompilation. It is a pretty well-known language in the present day.
It is a high-order programming language for computers, much like ALGOL. The design and development of embedded systems is where it excels.
It is an object-oriented reflective programming language that extends C with messaging capabilities.
Small Machine Algol-like Language is the name of the language. It gives programmers the ability to create ALGOL-like code that can be executed on compact computing devices.
It is an object-oriented, reflective programming language that allows for dynamic typing. Smalltalk was created by Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg, Dan Ingalls, Scott Wallace, Ted Kaehler, and their coworkers at Xerox PARC. It was intended for educational purposes, but it quickly gained popularity. A well-known Smalltalk implementation is VisualWorks. An implementation of Smalltalk in the form of a programming language is called Squeak. Based on Squeak, Scratch is a visual programming language.
It was created in 1982 by James Cordy and Ric Holt of the University of Toronto in Canada. It bears Alan Turing’s name, a British computer scientist. This Pascal-like language has been available for free since 2007.
It is an integrated development environment that comes coupled with an event-driven programming language. Many of its features are carried over from BASIC. Beginners find it simple to learn VB thanks to its graphical development tools.
It is a procedural and object-oriented programming language that was derived from FoxPro. It does not require a separate programming environment because it is integrated with a relational database system of its own. Dynamic programming is supported.
It is intended to enable concept programming, a paradigm for writing computer programmes that focuses on how ideas in a programmer’s head might be translated into code constructions. The syntax and semantics of XL can be changed by programmers.
Procedural Programming Languages
Programming in the procedural (imperative) style involves outlining the stages that programmes should take to reach a desired state. A procedure is a collection of statements that can be accessed via a procedure call. Procedures facilitate code reuse. Procedural programming creates structured and easily traceable programmes for programme flow.
Prior to the introduction of C, it was one of the most well-known languages of this sort. Bliss was created by W.A. Wolf, D.B. Russell, and A.N. Habermann of Carnegie Mellon University. Exception handling facilities, coroutines, and macros are included, but the goto statement is not.
It is a concurrent and highly timed audio programming language that operates on Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. It is particularly well-known for allowing programmers to make changes to running programmes.
It is a procedural programming language that resembles a batch file in that it consists of a series of commands that must be executed sequentially.
It is a high-level programming language designed for use by beginning programmers. The programmers of this computer language were referred to as authors, and the process of producing computer programmes was known as scripting. HyperTalk was invented by Dan Winker in 1987. It is structurally similar to Pascal.
It is a general-purpose procedural language that was developed at ETH in 1978 by Niklaus Wirth. It is comparable to Pascal and supports system programming and multiprogramming.
Niklaus Wirth, the creator of Pascal and Modula, introduced Oberon in 1986. It was created as a component of the operating system Oberon. It is comparable to Modula-2 but more compact.
It is a programming language that superficially resembles Pascal, but is incompatible with it. Actually, it is a variation of Oberon-2. Lagoona is an experimental programming language that enables component-oriented programming, a paradigm for breaking down a system into logical or functional components. Niklas Wirth’s pupil Michael Franz created Lagoona. Seneca, also referred to as Oberon-2, is an expansion of the programming language Oberon.
It is an environment for numerical computing and a programming language that enables matrix computations, function charting, and algorithm development. It can also be used to create user interfaces. MathWorks has developed MATLAB.
It is an imperative procedural language that David May and his colleagues at INMOS developed. It’s comparable to Pascal. Occam-pi is an expanded version of Occam that supports nested protocols, recursion, protocol inheritance, array constructors, and run-time process generation.
It was designed for use in teaching programming. It was established in the 1970s at Cornell University.
It is an imperative programming language designed for engineering and scientific applications. It is primarily designed for data processing, but allows structured programming and recursion as well.
It is a procedural programming language used in Soviet schools to teach computer programming. Developed in the Soviet Union, this language initially had Russian-based keywords. Later, English keywords were added.
This language is utilised for corporate applications. It is accessible on midrange IBM System I systems.
Scripted Programming Languages
Scripting languages are control languages for applications. Scripts are capable of running independently of other applications. They are typically embedded into the application they manage and are intended to automate regularly executed operations, such as connecting with external programmes.
It is an integrated scripting language for the Mac OS.
Awk was created in the 1970s at Bell Laboratories. Utilizing the string datatype, arrays, and regular expressions, it processes text-based data in data streams and files.
It is a Java-like scripting computer programming languages that runs on the Java Runtime Environment with scripting commands and syntax.
It is an application server and software development framework that includes the ColdFusion Markup Language scripting language. It is known as CFML and its syntax is comparable to HTML.
It is an object-oriented scripting language that closely resembles Smalltalk and also supports array programming.
It is an event-driven scripting language with a rich application programming interface (API).
Language Embedded in Maya
It is a scripting computer programming languages used to assist tasks in the Maya software and is abbreviated MEL. Its syntax is similar to Perl’s.
This scripting language is intended for usage on the Internet and is viewed as a blend of Haskell and Java.
PHP is one of the most widely used programming languages for common purposes. It is designed to generate dynamic web pages and includes a command line interface.
It is a language for quick application development based on HyperTalk. This language is cross-platform and allows dynamic typing.
It is a scripting language that is considered simple to learn. It is utilised in quick prototyping and embedded devices.
Microsoft developed this scripting language as an extension of Microsoft Visual Basic. VBScript is a standard component of all Desktop versions of Microsoft Windows.
Microsoft Windows PowerShell
It is the command line shell and scripting language of Microsoft, is compatible with Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Server 2008, and was released in 2006. They collaborate with Microsoft.NET Framework through executables, forms of standalone applications, standard.NET classes, cmdlets that are specialized.NET classes and scripts, as well as cmdlet compositions and imperative logic.
Markup is a computer programming language that uses text annotations to specify how content should be displayed.
It is an object-oriented, reflective programming language. It is a markup language comparable to HTML. Curl is an object-oriented, multiple inheritance-supporting programming language.
IBM’s Generalized Markup Language is the ancestor of Standardized General Markup Language (SGML). It is an ISO-standard metalanguage that defines document markup languages. It was created with the intention of facilitating the distribution of machine-readable documents for long-term storage of major projects.
HTML, also known as Hypertext Markup Language, is the most widely used markup language for online pages. It is composed of HTML tags encircled by angle brackets. HTML tags describe the display of text in a document and can be incorporated in other code to alter the behaviour of a web browser. HTML employs the default syntax of SGML.
Extensible Marku computer programming Languages is the acronym for this term. Users are able to define their own XML elements, making it extendable. It allows for the exchange of structured data via the Internet, as well as the encoding and serialization of data. It started off as a subset of SGML. XPath is the XML Path Language used for selecting nodes within an XML document. It facilitates the calculation of values. XQuery is used to query XML data collections. Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT) is an XML-based language used to transform XML documents into formats that are understandable by humans. Apache Ant is a programme that automates software build procedures. It describes the build steps using XML.
It is a markup language that resembles HTML and uses the syntax of XML. It is a hybrid of HTML and XML. XHTML documents permit automated data processing.
Logic programming is a paradigm for computer programming that relies heavily on formal logic. Any programme developed in a logic programming language consists of a series of logical phrases that convey facts and rules about a problem domain.
Combining functional programming and logic programming, Algebraic Logic Functional Programming Language is a multi-paradigm programming language. ALF programme statements are compiled to abstract machine instructions. An emulator built in C executes the abstract machine’s code.
In the 1980s, Trevor Martin and Jim Baldwin at the University of Bristol created the Fril language. This pertains to predicate calculus of the first order. It supports fuzzy sets and metaprogramming, and its syntax is based on Prolog.
Janus allows concurrent programming and programming with constraints.
This language is a combination of logic-based, functional, imperative, and object-oriented programming. Thus, it is one of the languages with several paradigms.
It is a language that supports multiple programming paradigms, including functional, logic-based, imperative, and object-oriented. Additionally, Oz facilitates concurrent and distributed programming. Oz’s support for constraint programming is one of the benefits of this language.
It is a potent multi-paradigm software development environment with POP-11 as its core language. All the computer programming languages in this development environment use the same language editor and are progressively compiled.
It is a general-purpose programming language which supports logic programming and is frequently associated with artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. The language is declarative, and the logic of the programme is expressed as relations. Mercury is a Prolog-based functional logic programming language. Strawberry Prolog is an easy-to-use dialect of the programming language Prolog. Visual Prolog is a Prolog modification that supports object-oriented programming and is strongly typed. It is a logic-based, compiled programming language.
It is a multi-paradigm computer programming languages based on C++. It is designed to be used in conjunction with artificial intelligence systems. Its capabilities include a combination of procedural, logic-based, and object-oriented programming.
A concurrent computer programming languages is a method of computer programming that enables the concurrent execution of activities within a single computer or across multiple computers. In this instance, the phrase “distributed computing” is employed.
It is an Actor-Based Concurrent Language created in Japan throughout the 1980s and 1990s. ABCL/1, ABCL/R, and ABCL/R2 are some ABCL family members.
It is a functional programming language with multiple threads. Its interpreter is composed of C++ code. The runtime engine is compatible with both 32-bit and 64-bit platforms.
Cilk, which was created in 1994 at the MIT Laboratory, provides multithreaded parallel programmin
A Danish-American computer scientist named Per Brinch Hansen developed Concurrent Pascal for building operating systems and programming real-time systems.
Distributed programming is supported by this object-oriented programming language. Mark Miller, Dan Bornstein, and their Electric Communities colleagues created E in 1997. Its syntax is similar to Java.
Joule was a concurrent dataflow programming language that predated E. It is utilized for distributed application development.
Limbo was developed at Bell Labs for programming distributed systems. Its most notable characteristic is the ability of its compiler to generate architecture-independent object code. Applications running on the Inferno operating system utilize Limbo. Alex, which was originally part of the Plan 9 operating system, is Limbo’s predecessor.
It is an experimental programming language with statically typed expressions.
It stands for Simple Actor Language System and Architecture, provides concurrent programming, message passing, and distributed computing. It employs Java code to ensure portability.
SR is a concurrent programming language abbreviated as Synchronizing Resources.
Object-Oriented Computer Programming Languages
OOP is a programming paradigm based on the concept of “objects,” which may contain data in the form of fields, sometimes referred to as attributes, and code in the form of procedures, often referred to as methods. Object-oriented programming (OOP) involves building computer programmes consisting of objects that interact with one another.
It is an object-oriented programming language based on prototypes with message forwarding methods.
Classes and procedures revolve around the same concept, and classes are defined as object attributes. It possesses powerful abstraction methods. BETA supports nested classes as well.
Craig Chambers developed this object-oriented language at the University of Washington. Comparable to Objective-C and Modula-3.
Lava is an interpreter-based visual object-oriented programming language.
It was the first object-oriented programming language based on prototype notions that was compiled. In addition, system programming is supported.
It is a dynamically typed programming language based on prototypes that allows object-oriented programming. It supports exception handling and looping methods.
It is an open-source server-side programming language that includes objects for state and session management and database connectivity.
It was created at Australia’s University of Queensland. It augments the Z programming language with object-oriented capabilities.
It is an object-oriented programming language that is an interpretable computer language. It supports untyped variables and was created for parallel and distributed computations.
Oxygene is a powerful object-oriented programming language that is based on Object Pascal. Previously, it was referred to as “Chrome.”
It is built on a dynamic compiler and has the ability to accommodate both low-level and high-level expressions.
It is a visual, object-oriented, multi-paradigm programming language that employs symbols to represent data manipulation operations.
The acronym REBOL stands for Relative Expression Based Object Language. It is intended for usage on decentralised platforms and in network communications.
Scala is an acronym for Scalable Language. It is a programming language that supports both object-oriented and functional programming paradigms.
It is an object-oriented computer programming languages based on prototypes. NewtonScript is mostly influenced by Self and is used to build programmes for Apple Newton.
This object-oriented computer programming languages is built on the prototype notion. Some of its characteristics are derived from Smalltalk and others from the Self language. The Slate concept is intended to provide a programming environment similar to an operating system.
It is an object-oriented extension of the Tool Command Language that allows dynamic classes and methods as well as metaclasses.
It is a purely object-oriented computer programming languages with an object model based on prototypes. It is compact and executable on small, portable virtual machines.
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